Groth Corporation's Pressure/Vacuum Relief Valves, Pressure Relief Valves, Vacuum Relief Valves, Pilot Operated Valves, Flame and Detonation Arresters, Emergency Relief Valves, Waste Gas Burners, Pressure Regulators and more have been protecting refineries, chemical processing plants and facilities with atmospheric, fixed-roof storage tanks for more than 50 years.
Pressure/Vacuum Relief Valves, Pressure Relief Valves, Vacuum Relief Valves and other pressure relief devices are important emission control devices. Relief valves protect against damage from pressure or vacuum and reduce losses from product evaporation. They are an important step in protecting the environment from harmful VOCs (Volatile Organic Compound).
Flame and detonation arresters reduce the risk of damage or injury from fire. Groth Corporation is committed to providing innovative solutions, quality products and comprehensive service to improve the safety of your plant. Our products provide cost savings by reducing media loss and help to protect the environment for the next generation.
The pressure/vacuum valve is a protection device mounted on a nozzle opening on the top of a fixed roof atmospheric storage tank. Its primary purpose is to protect the tank against rupturing or imploding. Without an opening or a controlled opening, a fixed roof atmospheric tank would rupture under increasing pressure caused by pumping liquid into the tank or as a result of vapor pressure changes caused by severe thermal changes. Imploding, or the collapsing of a tank, occurs during the pumping out procedure or thermal changes.
As the liquid level lowers, the vapor space pressure is reduced to below atmospheric pressure. This vacuum condition must be alleviated through a controlled opening on the tank. In short, the tank needs to breathe in order to eliminate the possibility of rupturing or imploding. Because of its primary function, a pressure/vacuum valve is commonly referred to as a “breather valve”.
What is a Flame Arrestor?
Flame arresters are fire safety devices. They prevent flames from entering a tank and also provide protection from flashes within a tank. They can also be used as an in-line flashback prevention device.
What is an Emergency Vent?
The primary function of the emergency relief valve is to provide a controlled opening on a tank that will be large enough to prevent rupturing of the tank under severe pressure increases caused by close proximity to intense fire. Each of these safety devices are used on the atmospheric, fixed roof, non-refrigerated, storage tank.
Benefits of Conservation Vents
1. Saves money by saving product.
2. Protects tank from over or under pressure when sized properly.
3. Protection against fire hazard when conforming to API standards.
4. Minimizes evaporation loss.
5. Reduces atmospheric corrosion of tank.
6. Generally in all cases required by EPA.
Complies with API 2000
API Standards are provided as an engineering aid for specification and selection of “normal” and “emergency” pressure and vacuum relief valves for aboveground liquid petroleum storage tanks. Normal venting capacity is obtained without exceeding pressure or vacuum that would cause physical damage or permanent deformation to the tank. The following will help in sizing a pressure/vacuum valve:
1. Normal Relief: The sum of vapor replacement resulting from emptying or filling and thermal in-breathing or outbreathing.
2. Emergency Relief: Thermal out-breathing from fire exposure.
3. All Tanks: Generally require the sizing of a normal pressure and vacuum relief valve to be sized and an independent emergency relief valve to be sized separately.
4. Flow Curves: These curves provide pressure and vacuum capacity which is required for sizing.
How a Conservation Vent Operates
How does a pressure/vacuum valve operate? Most atmospheric tanks require a venting device that will allow large volumes of vapor to escape under relatively low pressures.
Usually the allowable set pressure is in inches of water column pressure, both for positive and vacuum conditions.
This is because most large storage tanks have a relatively low maximum allowable working pressure.
These tanks are generally large volume welded vessels that are built to API 650 standard. In order to accommodate large volumes at low set pressures, these valves have ports that are greater in area than the inlet or nozzle connection.
The low setting required necessitates weight loading the valve as opposed to spring loading.
Because of the above, a pressure/ vacuum valve requires approximately 100% over set pressure in order to reach full opening of the valve.